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首頁 > 托福 > 托福資訊 > 托福口語 > 托福獨立口語中如何巧用話題背景解釋觀點?

托福獨立口語中如何巧用話題背景解釋觀點?

2022-01-06     作者 :    

閱讀量:

Background背景”的英文解釋是:“information that helps us understand a situation or problem”。

從中可以看出,其作用是幫助聽者快速進入話題,在有了相關的背景鋪墊后,可以很好的理解說者表達的觀點。

在綜合口語task3的閱讀部分,我們經常見到作者在描述概念之間先引入話題相關背景。但是在獨立口語中背景引入,有時候不光是作為磚一樣地簡單切入話題引入玉,更是可以作為玉的一個部分--在觀點論述中扮演著原因論證的角色,不僅使我們的口語更豐富,也使觀點展開更有說服性。

首先,先用一個生活中的話題引入。比如,需要論證的題目是人們不應該浪費食物,在展開談論之前,可以先從背景入手,告訴聽眾現如今糧食浪費的現狀,凸顯節約食物的必要性,從而順理成章地推出自己的觀點。

對背景的討論一般是描述現象或用已知調查數據給出證據,這里給出該題目的背景引入示范,主要采用數字說話的背景引入方式:

Every year, 1.6 billion tons of food is wasted around the world. That's about one-third of all food produced each year, including 763 billion boxes of pasta, 574 billion eggs, 3.6 trillion apples, to name just a few. From People's Daily, China is the 23rd for food waste in the survey. China's food waste is around 18 million tons per year, enough to feed up to 50 million people for one year.

相信大家看到這組數字后會感到觸目驚心,和說者一樣發出一種節約糧食的呼吁。

不光是在整體觀點展開前可以引入大背景,在具體描述某個分論點的時候,也可以使用這種方式。

還是剛才的題目,假如我們已經給出原因是,杜絕浪費可以更好地幫助貧困地區飽受饑餓之苦的人們,也可以引入目前世界上饑餓人們的現狀作為背景,引出后文的談論,例如:

One out of seven among billions of people worldwide woke up and didn't even know how to fill a cup of food.

現在讓我們看看在托福獨立口語personal preference的題目中,如何使用背景完善內容。

Question:Some people like to attend a live performance or live sporting event, while others prefer to stay at home and watch it on TV on other electronic devices. Which do you prefer and why?

該題目可以從身體,心理,學習能力三方面的影響展開觀點。考慮到兩個活動較為顯著的特點是一動一靜,可以首先考慮從身體健康方面進行解釋,可以對比(對比論證)運動的好處和久坐不動的弊端。

假如選定觀點是“prefer to attend a live performance or live sporting event”,可以聯系背景,例如自己是學生的身份,或現在的人們工作緊張缺乏鍛煉,從必要性的角度解釋論證(原因解釋)自己的觀點。

參考語言表達:

Keep healthy and fit

Unlikely to get ill or be affected by diseases

Be harmful for physical health

Boost energy and refresh mind

Stretch out arms and legs

Prevent people getting stiff and exhausted

答案示范:

Personally speaking, I think it is a better idea to take part in a live performance or live sports activities. The main reason is to keep healthy and fit since nowadays many people have already been stressed our with tremendous amount of workload which they have to cope with causing many physical health problems.

然后連接題干所選觀點:

However, doing sports activities can provide them with more chances to stretch out their arms and legs which prevents them getting stiff and exhausted even improve immune system. As a result, they are unlikely to be affected by diseases.

不同的題目有不同的背景引入方式,壓力是背景引入的思路之一,還有其他的思路,快加入我們的課堂一起學習吧。


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